In much of our lives, and certainly at work, we are beholden to others who influence or direct our choices, and control the resources we use. If you recall the first article published on Lateral Action (also inspired by Dan Pink) we looked at Why Creativity Is Economic Priority Number One. We're Syrus Partners. Let’s turn back to our conversation with Dan. TRANSCRIPT: I need to make a confession at the outset here. Book on motivation Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us is the fourth non-fiction book by Daniel Pink. The three elements of intrinsic motivation are: autonomy, mastery and purpose. But that initial signal, and the reward that goes with it, forces the principal onto a path that’s difficult to leave. Think of the agent as the motivatee – the employee, the student, the child. “Drive: The Surprising Truth about Workplace Motivation” is a workshop that will enable HR and line managers to unlock the human desire for autonomy, mastery and purpose: the route to delivering truly engaged staff. https://www.ted.com/talks/dan_pink_the_puzzle_of_motivation All of these forms are extrinsic, and they work only in certain situations. Dan Pink: The Puzzle of Motivation. Pink describes mastery as the desire to continually improve at something that matters. TRANSCRIPT: I need to make a confession at the outset here. Dan Pink: The Puzzle of Motivation. Drawing on four decades of scientific research on human motivation, Pink exposes the mismatch between what science knows and what business does—and how that affects every aspect of life. Here’s how to make the most of motivation, both for yourself and others. The book, on the importance and effectiveness of three intrinsic elements for motivation, became a bestseller soon after its publication in 2009. Science knows that the 20th century tiered financial rewards do not improve performance and can even destroy creativity. What’s more, once the initial money buzz tapers off, you’ll likely have to increase the payment to continue compliance. It was … Just the fact of offering a reward for some form of effort sends the message that the work is, well, work. Rewards can work for routine (algorithmic) tasks that require little creativity. Following is the full transcript of author Dan Pink’s talk: The Puzzle of Motivation at TED Talk Conference. In discussing ‘extrinsic’ vs ‘intrinsic’ motivation, Pink points out that there is often a trade-off; extrinsic factors may work best in the short-term, but in the long run intrinsic motivation is always the winner! Athletes inject themselves with steroids to post better numbers and trigger lucrative performance bonuses. We’d do well […]. A variety of non-financial methods are available that can be used to improve employee performance and motivation. Pink puts it succinctly: Once the baseline rewards have been sorte… In this provocative and persuasive new book, he asserts that the secret to … Motivation Theory - Maslow. See our Privacy Policy.Farnam Street participates in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising commissions by linking to Amazon. We tend to think that we are either motivated by a fear of punishment or the excitement of a reward; the positive and the negative, the carrot and the stick. This can be frustrating when we disagree with directions and struggle to complete seemingly impossible work. The only route to the destination is the high road. Read more › Non-Financial Methods to Improve Employee Performance and Motivation. This book is better at explaining what motivation is than how to improve it, says Sean Howard, vice-president of SHL. Being directed by others grates on our need for a sense ofcontrol, especially when we feel we could do a better job of left to our own devices. Through an example regarding college students’ motivation, where the total utility obtained is constant, the differences and subsequent He has also been the host and co-executive producer of “Crowd Control,” a television series about human behavior on National Geographic.Before that, Dan has been a business columnist, an advisor, and even a speech writer to then U.S. Vice President, Al Gore. Motivation - McGregor (Theory X & Theory Y) Study notes. A principal essentially tries to get the agent to do what the principal wants, while the agent balances his own interests with whatever the principal is offering. If you are a skilled worker, you will quite easily be able to find a job in your desired salary range. Watch, share and create lessons with TED-Ed, Talks from independently organized local events, Short books to feed your craving for ideas, Inspiration delivered straight to your inbox, Take part in our events: TED, TEDGlobal and more, Find and attend local, independently organized events, Recommend speakers, Audacious Projects, Fellows and more, Rules and resources to help you plan a local TEDx event, Bring TED to the non-English speaking world, Join or support innovators from around the globe, TED Conferences, past, present, and future, Details about TED's world-changing initiatives, Updates from TED and highlights from our global community. Pay your son to take out the trash – and you’ve pretty much guaranteed the kid will never do it again for free. Learn more about the User ratings. It’s not only the person who is being motivated with the reward that is hurt here. Try to … Why do we lose our motivation part way to achieving our goal? That’s a mistake, says Daniel H. Pink (author of To Sell Is Human: The Surprising Truth About Motivating Others). More by Dan Pink: Business and technology writer Daniel Pink discusses his book, “Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us,” presented by Harvard Book Store. Share: Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Linkedin Share on Google Share by email. We’ve talked about the book before, but it’s worth going into a bit more detail. Additionally, rewards by their very nature narrow our focus, we tend to ignore everything but the finish line. However, one word of caution – be careful if these rewards become expected, because at that point, they are no different than the ‘if, then’ rewards. Incentivised motivation is limited. In his 2009 book, \"/community/BookInsights/Drive.phpDrive,\" Daniel Pink sets out a new vision for workplace motivation, which he labels \"Motivation 3.0.\" So called, he explains, because it's an upgrade from primitive survival (\"Motivation 1.0\") and from the culture of reward and punishment that we find in most businesses (\"Motivation 2.0\").Pink's theory is drawn from research undertaken by psychologists Harry Harlow and Edward Deci in 1971. Daniel H. Pink is the author of several provocative, bestselling books about business, work, and behavior. But offer a reward that’s enticing enough to get the agent to act the first time, and the principal ‘is doomed to give it again in the second.’ There’s no going back. In some ways, that’s just common sense. Motivation 3.0. Like all extrinsic motivators, goals narrow our focus. Daniel Pink is an author whose books have already sold more than 2,000,000 copies worldwide and translated into over 30+ languages. "As Dan Pink's new book Drive argues, financial incentives are no longer enough to give a business an edge: in an economy driven by ideas and creativity, it's more effective to give workers a sense of purpose, of mastery, of autonomy over their time and their tasks. Daniel Pink brilliantly makes the case that traditional extrinsic rewards (bonuses, awards, etc.) Likewise, several studies show that paying people to exercise, stop smoking, or take their medicines produces terrific results at first – but the healthy behavior disappears once the incentives are removed. Why is that? As the cadre of business school professors write, ‘Substantial evidence demonstrates that in addition to motivating constructive effort, goal setting can induce unethical behavior. do not generate the kind of motivation that drives great performance. Increasing intrinsic motivation in everyday activities yields greater satisfaction and engagement. Motivation - Pink (Three Elements of Intrinsic Motivation) Study notes. If you hit your sales goals this month, then I will give you a bonus. Both are very different and lead to disparate outcomes. Here we explore a better way to learn and enjoy the process. Mastery. But not the kind of technology you might immediately think of, like your iPhone. If you are a skilled worker, you will quite easily be able to find a job in your desired salary range. Dan Pink introduces ‘The Candle Problem’ – attaching a candle to a wall with a box of thumbtacks and matches to that it doesn’t drip. Our sense of identityis also impacted when we feel we are doing the work of others rather than something where we … Motivation - Maslow (Hierarchy of Needs) Levels: GCSE, AS; Exam boards: AQA, Edexcel, OCR, IB; Print page. 2020 Farnam Street Media Inc. All Rights Reserved. Following is the full transcript of author Dan Pink’s talk: The Puzzle of Motivation at TED Talk Conference. Mastery. These same pressures that may nudge you towards unethical actions can also push you to make more risky decisions. But as we’ve seen, a narrowed focus exacts a cost. An algorithmic task is when you follow a set of instructions down a defined path that leads to a single conclusion. When we use goals to motivate us, how does that affect how we think and behave? Daniel Pink affirms that extrinsic rewards tend to become the key reason for doing the task and thus they “crowd out” intrinsic motivation and any possible pleasure connected to the task itself. Discover how companies use these new approaches to motivation; Dig Deeper. The New York Times bestseller that gives readers a paradigm—shattering new way to think about motivation. It argues that human motivation is largely intrinsic, and that the aspects of this motivation can be divided into autonomy, mastery, and purpose. People Management: Non-Financial Motivation Methods (GCSE) Study notes . The person who is trying to encourage a certain type of behavior also falls into a trap and is forced to try and course correct which, often, leaves them worse off than if they had never offered the reward in the first place. The myth of the lone genius. Using a blizzard of complicated equations that test a variety of scenarios between principal and agent, Suvorov has reached conclusions that make intuitive sense to any parent who’s tried to get her kids to empty the garbage. “Human beings have an innate inner drive to be autonomous, self-determined, and connected to one … *** Most of us try to make decisions intended to bring us greater […], The standard way of learning is far from being the fastest or most enjoyable. This can have a large negative impact on intrinsic motivation. Maslow focused on the psychological needs of employees. © TED Conferences, LLC. When Pink discusses motivation, he breaks it into two specific types: extrinsic and intrinsic. If you wanted someone to stay with your company or to perform better, you simply had to offer financial incentives. Motivation Theory - Taylor (Scientific Management) Student videos. Posted on 3 February 2016 by Maya Saric. The book was published in 2009 by Riverhead Hardcover. For routine tasks, which aren’t very interesting and don’t demand much creative thinking, rewards can provide a small motivational booster shot without the harmful side effects. Daniel H. Pink (born 1964) is the author of six books about work, business, and behavioral science. Pink recommends finding the unique personal contribution you can make as an individual, rather than focusing on changing the whole world. Anytime you pitch anything (an idea, a product, a way of life), you are selling something. Maybe, he says, if we can increase productivity in solving the candle problems everywhere, we can change the world. The Daniel Pink motivation theory is a theory of the factors that are important in obtaining intrinsic, sustainable motivation. And … The secret to high-performance is that unseen intrinsic drive– the drive to do things for their own sake. That's a mistake, Daniel H. Pink says in his transformative new book. For complex or conceptual tasks, offering a reward can blinker the wide-ranging thinking necessary to come up with an innovative solution. Dan Pink introduces ‘The Candle Problem’ – attaching a candle to a wall with a box of thumbtacks and matches to that it doesn’t drip. Open Translation Project. Dan Pink's theory of motivation is based on the simple notion that people have the intrinsic or internal capability of unleashi ng the power to transform organizations, society, nations, and even the globe. Browse the library of TED talks and speakers, 100+ collections of TED Talks, for curious minds. Daniel Pink first piques our curiosity by detailing a few well … Likewise, when an extrinsic goal is paramount – particularly a short-term, measurable one whose achievement delivers a big payoff – its presence can restrict our view of the broader dimensions of our behavior. A little over 20 years ago, I did something that I regret, something that I’m not particularly proud of. Amabile and others have found that extrinsic rewards can be effective for algorithmic tasks – those that depend on following an existing formula to its logical conclusion. Allow people to complete the task their own way (think autonomy not control). There is a person who toils alone for years in relative obscurity before finally cracking the code to become a hero. TOK JOURNAL YEAR 5 SUYI WEN TED Talk by Dan Pink – ‘The Puzzle of Motivation’ I have recently watched a TED talk presented by Dan Pink, and what I have found interesting about this talk is the idea of disconnect between science and business regarding this topic. Author and researcher Daniel Pink divides intrinsic motivation into three components: mastery, autonomy, and purpose. Pink said that long-term employee motivation stemmed from offering people fair pay, along with autonomy, mastery, and purpose. Daniel Pink, author of “Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us.” Once the baseline rewards have been sorted, we are often offered other ‘carrots and sticks’ to nudge our behavior. By Daniel Pink. Dan introduced this in 2009 in his fourth non-fiction book called Drive – The surprising truth about what motivates us. Dan Pink is the author of five books about business, work, and management that have sold two million copies worldwide. (Dan Pink, TED Talk) Why Motivation Matters in the Creative Economy. Dan Pink: The puzzle of motivation, a summary Posted on 3 February 2016 by Maya Saric There is a mismatch between what science knows and what business does. In an attempt to simplify shifts in our motivation, Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us, by Daniel Pink, has broken motivation into three operating systems: Motivation 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0. Even if you can trigger the better behavior it will often disappear once incentives are removed. It argues that human motivation is largely intrinsic, and that the aspects of this motivation can be divided into autonomy, mastery, and purpose. Business; Study notes; Motivation; Job rotation; Job enrichment; Job enlargement; Flexible working; Empowerment; Delegation; Consultation; Show more... Study notes Emerging Economies. Think back to the last time you really struggled to master something but finally did. Dan Pink. It’s slow, makes us second guess ourselves, and interferes with our natural learning process. Incentivised motivation is limited. (See more about the dangers of goals.). ‘If, then’ rewards are when we promise to deliver something to an individual once they complete a specific task. Our collaboration with Dan Pink means we can exclusively offer his workshops to individuals and to organisations in the UK. Autonomy isn’t only vital at ‘boss-less’ companies, it also became a core factor in Dan’s famous Motivation 3.0 concept. The Rise and Fall of Motivation 2.0. The book was published in 2009 by Riverhead Hardcover. Summary. Most people believe that the best way to motivate is with rewards like money—the carrot-and-stick approach. Crowds-out intrinsic motivation. Daniel Pink’s work on motivation is likely the most well known, the most quoted, and the most discussed in management circles. They tend to prompt a short term surge in motivation but actually dampen it over the long term. However, the issue of money as a motivator has become moot in many sectors. Many of these rewards will actually achieve the opposite effect of what was intended. How do we motivate people to become the best they can be? When has autonomy in your work led to innovation? This is fine for algorithmic tasks but hurts us with heuristic-based tasks. Money was once thought to be the best way to motivate an employee. The best use of money as a motivator is to pay people enough to take the issue of money off the table. You’ll get very little motivation at all. If we want to maximize happiness, we need to prioritize experiences over appearances. The key to high performance and satisfaction is intrinsic, internal motivation: the desire to follow your own interests and understand the benefits in them for you. “The problem with ‘if, then’ rewards is the event – the contingency – because the contingency is a form of control. There are two types of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic. How can you hire highly skilled workers, persuade them to work for free, and then release your product to the masses for free? Using experimental analysis and statistics, Dan Pink has relied on information from top economic institutions such as Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), University of Chicago, and the London School of Economics (LSE). Drawing on four decades of scientific research on human motivation, Pink exposes the mismatch between what science knows and what business does—and how that affects every aspect of life. If you wanted someone to stay with your company or to perform better, you simply had to offer financial incentives. Daniel Pink November 2015 Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us Daniel H. Pink Pink has, at the end of the book, summaries- of the whole book, and of each chapter. According to various studies conducted to study employee motivation, results reveal that employees are motivated more by intrinsic incentives other than extrinsic incentives. Author and researcher Daniel Pink divides intrinsic motivation into three components: mastery, autonomy, and purpose. This man was bestselling author and Bucket List pioneer Dan Pink. Autonomy. Pink also describes two distinctly different types of tasks: algorithmic and heuristic. You punish something, you get less of it. https://www.ted.com/talks/dan_pink_the_puzzle_of_motivation/transcript When teachers create lessons with a focus on intrinsic motivation, they drive students to participate and excel. Offer a rationale for why the task is necessary. Daniel Pink (@DanielPink), author of Drive about the science behind motivation, is out with a new book called To Sell Is Human: The Surprising Truth of Moving Others. (If the task were desirable, the agent wouldn’t need a prod.) Listen to the MP3 Audio here: Dan Pink on The puzzle of motivation at TED Talk. You will increase your chances for success when rewarding routine tasks using these three practices: Any extrinsic reward should be unexpected and offered only once the task is complete. People Management: Introduction to Motivation (GCSE) Study notes. Secondary school counselors doctor student transcripts so their seniors can get into college. Instead, he argues that three key variables--Autonomy, Mastery, and Purpose--are the keys to making people want to put their heart into their work. The New York Times bestseller that gives readers a paradigm—shattering new way to think about motivation. TED.com translations are made possible by volunteer Pink condenses 50 years of social science studying on the subject of motivation into a few simple words: “If-then” motivation is great for simple and short tasks. Intrinsic motivation is something that comes from within and can be as simple as the joy one feels after accomplishing a challenging task. Increasing intrinsic motivation in everyday activities yields greater satisfaction and engagement. In many ways, this is common sense as it is the opposite of the ‘if, then’ rewards allowing you to avoid its many failings (focus isn’t solely on the prize, motivation won’t wane if the reward isn’t present during the task, etc…). Pink condenses 50 years of social science studying on the subject of motivation into a few simple words: “If-then” motivation is great for simple and short tasks. Sometimes when we are running towards a goal, we suddenly lose steam and peter out before we cross the finish line. TED Everyone likes getting a little extra cash, but we shouldn't think it makes us work any harder. From 1995 to 1997, he was the chief speechwriter for Vice President Al Gore. We tend to think that we are either motivated by a fear of punishment or the excitement of a reward; the positive and the negative, the carrot and the stick. “Autonomy is a really important point when comes to [employee] experiences,” Pink said. In the search for happiness, we often confuse how something looks with how it’s likely to make us feel. A heuristic task has no instructions or defined path, one must be creative and experiment with possibilities to complete the task. If you get in a pinch, go to the library and read these summaries. Most people believe that the best way to motivate is with rewards like money—the carrot-and-stick approach. We are all pitching. In much of our lives, and certainly at work, we are beholden to others who influence or direct our choices, and control the resources we use. All rights reserved. By neglecting the ingredients of genuine motivation—autonomy, mastery, and purpose—they limit what each of us can achieve. 1. Pink puts it succinctly: Of course the starting point for any discussion of motivation in the workplace is a simple fact of life: People have to earn a living. According to Daniel Pink’s research, extrinsic motivation–what he calls the “carrot on a stick” approach to motivation–is great for people performing thoughtless or menial tasks.In other words, it’s great for 20th century industrial work. The problem with making extrinsic reward the only destination that matters is that some people will choose the quickest route there, even if it means taking the low road. Hosted by Pressable. In 'Drive', Dan Pink identifies three deep motivators that can also be viewed as needs. Anytime you pitch anything (an idea, a product, a way of life), you are selling … There is a mismatch between what science knows and what business does. This is especially true when it comes to our homes. How do we motivate ourselves? The Russian economist Anton Suvorov has constructed an elaborate econometric model to demonstrate this effect, configured around what’s called ‘principal-agent theory.’ Think of the principal as the motivator – the employer, the teacher, the parent. Go deeper into fascinating topics with original video series from TED. Student videos. He argues against old models of motivation driven by rewards and fear of punishment, dominated by extrinsic factors such as money. … Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us Author: Dan Pink Publisher: Canongate Books Price: £12.99 Stars: 5 out of 5 More about the book Drive. Extrinsic motivation is driven by external forces such as money or praise. Daniel Pink on Incentives and the Two Types of Motivation, Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us, Mental Model: Bias from Envy and Jealousy. Here are 6 powerful tips gleaned from his recent webinar on motivation and persuasion. Executives game their quarterly earnings so they can snag a performance bonus. Money was once thought to be the best way to motivate an employee. Salary, contract payments, some benefits, a few perks are what I call “baseline rewards.” If someone’s baseline rewards aren’t adequate or equitable, her focus will be on the unfairness of her situation and the anxiety of her circumstance. Like all extrinsic motivators, goals narrow our focus. Let’s look at how they play against each other, depending on what type of reward is offered. Enron sets lofty revenue goals – and the race to meet them by any means possible catalyzes the company’s collapse. In Drive, Pink asserts that motivation, at its core, comes from within. What people are saying - Write a review. By offering a reward, a principal signals to the agent that the task is undesirable. Summary. Contrast that approach with behavior sparked by intrinsic motivation. Dan Pink wrote an excellent book on motivation called Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us. In the video, Daniel Pink talks about employee motivation based on scientific evidence versus common business practices. Daniel Pink’s work on motivation is likely the most well known, the most quoted, and the most discussed in management circles. Sears imposes a sales quota on its auto repair staff – and workers respond by overcharging customers and completing unnecessary repairs. Photo: Dan Pink at TEDGlobal 2009, Session 12: “Enquire within,” July 24, 2009, in Oxford, UK. Ford is so intent on producing a certain car at a certain weight at a certain price by a certain date that it omits safety checks and unleashes the dangerous Ford Pinto. 1. do not generate the kind of motivation that drives great performance. Of course, we all have moments when we’re alone and something suddenly clicks. But it provides great support and reference points for improving people management. But not the kind of technology you might immediately think of, like your iPhone. Indeed, most of the scandals and misbehavior that have seemed endemic to modern life involve shortcuts. Speaker. translators. In some sense, it’s impossible to act unethically because the person who’s disadvantaged isn’t a competitor but yourself. Dan Pink is the author of five books about business, work, and management that have sold two million copies worldwide. Dan Pink: The puzzle of motivation. Instead, he argues that three key variables--Autonomy, Mastery, and Purpose--are the … We are all pitching. Rewarded subjects often have a harder time seeing the periphery and crafting original solutions. Dan Pink's theory of motivation is based on the simple notion that people have the intrinsic or internal capability of unleashi ng the power to transform organizations, society, nations, and even the globe. You’ll get neither the predictability of extrinsic motivation nor the weirdness of intrinsic motivation. *** It’s the final moment before an important endeavor—a speech, a performance, a presentation, an […], Stop me if this sounds familiar. The examples are legion, the researchers note. Motivation is a tricky multifaceted thing. When the reward is the activity itself – deepening learning, delighting customers, doing one’s best – there are no shortcuts. Daniel Pink, author of “Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us.” The drive towards the goal can convince you to make decisions that in any other situation you would likely never consider. Example: Giving pre-school children a reward for drawing meant they drew less than the groups without any reward 2 weeks after the task ended. As Edward Deci, Richard Ryan, and Richard Koestner explain, ‘Rewards do not undermine people’s intrinsic motivation for dull tasks because there is little or no intrinsic motivation to be undermined.’. Daniel Pink believes this is a problem with technology. Science knows that the 20th century tiered financial rewards do not improve performance and can even destroy creativity. However, the issue of money as a motivator has become moot in many sectors. Pink said that long-term employee motivation stemmed from offering people fair pay, along with autonomy, mastery, and purpose. The Daniel Pink Motivation Theory is a concept from the book Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us by Daniel Pink. It’s the stuff of Disney movies. That’s a mistake, says Daniel H. Pink (author of To Sell Is Human: The Surprising Truth About Motivating Others). Offer too small a reward and the agent won’t comply. Maslow put forward a theory that there are five levels in a hierarchy of human needs that employees need to have fulfilled at work. As a career analyst, Dan Pink describes motivation in two parts: extrinsic and intrinsic. Daniel Pink November 2015 When used in these situations, “if-then” rewards usually do more harm than good. Autonomy isn’t only vital at ‘boss-less’ companies, it also became a core factor in Dan’s famous Motivation 3.0 concept. Daniel Pink brilliantly makes the case that traditional extrinsic rewards (bonuses, awards, etc.) Using experimental analysis and statistics, Dan Pink has relied on information from top economic institutions such as Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), University of Chicago, and the London School of Economics (LSE). Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us is the fourth non-fiction book by Daniel Pink. “Typically, if you reward something, you get more of it. Daniel Pink believes this is a problem with technology. So if students get a prize for reading three books, many won’t pick up a fourth, let alone embark on a lifetime of reading – just as executives who hit their quarterly numbers often won’t boost earnings a penny more, let alone contemplate that long-term health of their company. Dan Pink: The puzzle of motivation, a summary. As you can see, the two types of motivations and tasks are quite different. Speaker. Listen to the MP3 Audio here: Dan Pink on The puzzle of motivation at TED Talk. 1. When teachers create lessons with a focus on intrinsic motivation, they drive students to participate and excel. “Autonomy is a really important point when comes to [employee] experiences,” Pink said. This can be frustrating when we disagree with directions and struggle to complete seemingly impossible work. We buy amazing businesses. As a career analyst, Dan Pink describes motivation in two parts: extrinsic and intrinsic. That’s one reason they can be effective; they concentrate the mind. He was the host and co-executive producer of the 2014 National Geographic Channel social science television series Crowd Control. Dan Pink gives his 2009 TED Talk "The Puzzle of Motivation." There are inherent dangers with ‘if, then’ rewards. Science knows that motivators only work to solve narrow problems, Pink declares, but they destroy creativity. Dan introduced this in 2009 in his fourth non-fiction book called … But for more right-brain undertakings – those that demand flexible problem-solving, inventiveness, or conceptual understanding – contingent rewards can be dangerous. In environments where extrinsic rewards are most salient, many people work only to the point that triggers the reward – and no further.

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