Lying on the equator means there is no summer or winter; however, there are typically wetter and drier seasons. Both sunrise and sunset occur each day at the two six o'clock hours.[1]. "25 Años de Vida Institucional", Imprenta del Ministerio de Salud Publica, Quito 2008. fifth lowest homicide rate in the Americas, Learn how and when to remove this template message, History of the Ecuadorian–Peruvian territorial dispute, Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, oil exploitation of the Amazon rainforest, José Joaquín de Olmedo International Airport, List of Roman Catholic dioceses in Ecuador, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Center for Research and Technology Development in Ecuador, Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador, Coordinadora de las Organizaciones Indígenas de la Cuenca Amazónica, "Constitución Política de la República del Ecuador", "Población del país es joven y mestiza, dice censo del INEC - Data from the national census 2010 (2011-09-02)", "INEC presenta por primera vez estadísticas sobre religión", "ECUADOR 2018 INTERNATIONAL RELIGIOUS FREEDOM REPORT", "Tratado de paz y amistad celebrado entre España y la República del Ecuador: en 16 de febrero de 1840", United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects: Ecuador GDP", "Constitución de la República del Ecuador en Shuar", "Chicham atiakur metek atin turakur, pénke takakainiachu tuke enentaimtusartiniaitji", "Quito se convirtió en la ciudad más poblada del Ecuador con más de 2,7 millones de habitantes en el 2018", "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2019", "South America Banks on Regional Strategy to Safeguard Quarter of Earth's Biodiversity", "Oficialmente Ecuador es el país de las orquídeas- Noticias de Cuenca - Azuay - Ecuador - Eltiempo de Cuenca", "Ecuador Adopts New Constitution – With CELDF RIGHTS of NATURE Language", "Ecuador: Tasa de homicidios pasó de 6,44 a 5,69 por 100.000 habitantes", "Decade of Reform: Ecuador's Macroeconomic Policies, Institutional Changes, and Results", "Under the Southern Cross: Stories around Humboldt and Bonpland's trip to the New Continent", "Ecuador en el día de la Independencia nacional", "Uppsala Conflict Data Program - Conflict Encyclopedia, General Conflict Information, Conflict name: Ecuador - Peru, In depth, Background to the 1995 fighting and Ecuador and Peru engage in armed conflict", "Avenger against oligarchy" wins in Ecuador, "Ecuador Re-elects President, Preliminary Results Show", "Public spending fuels Ecuador leader's popularity", "Correa's and Ecuador's Success drive The Economist Nuts", Correa wins re-election and says banks and mass media don't rule anymore, "Équateur : Lenín Moreno et le néolibéralisme par surprise", "Protesters move into Ecuador's capital; president moves out", "Ecuador Government Returns to Capital Amid National Strike", Reforma judicial en Ecuador debe hacerse hasta el 2015, OPEC Suffers Another Departure With Ecuador Seeking More Cash, Ecuador to quit OPEC in 2020 in search of bigger export revenue, "Ecuador Launches New Human Mobility National Plan", "Chapter XXVI: Disarmament – No. In addition, Ecuador's eastern border with the Portuguese colony of Brazil in the Amazon Basin was modified before the wars of Independence by the First Treaty of San Ildefonso (1777) between the Spanish Empire and the Portuguese Empire. The rivers rise from snowmelt at the edges of the snowcapped peaks or from the abundant precipitation that falls at higher elevations. Once Gran Colombia was dissolved after the death of Simón Bolívar in 1830, Ecuador inherited the same border disputes and had the need of creating its own professional military force. Ecuador Climate: The Andes. Between 2008 and 2016, new public hospitals have been built, the number of civil servants has increased significantly and salaries have been increased. Early literature in colonial Ecuador, as in the rest of Spanish America, was influenced by the Spanish Golden Age. The average temperature annually is 64 °F (17.8 °C). I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like. The Ecuadorian Institute of Social Security (IESS) has several major hospitals and medical sub-centers under its administration across the nation.[133]. Colonel Richelieu Levoyer, Government Minister, proposed and implemented a Plan to return to the constitutional system through universal elections. At the same time, the country's Gini index of economic inequality decreased from 0.55 to 0.47.[24]. I t is interesting to see that in the tropics very few Latin Americans distinguish between climate and weather and they use the two words for both meanings. 1913, Guayaquil – d. 1993, Quito) Demetrio Aguilera Malta (b. Citizens with no formal employment may still contribute to the social security system voluntarily and have access to the medical services rendered by the social security system. Among the people that have a religion, 80.44% are Roman Catholic Latin Rite (see List of Roman Catholic dioceses in Ecuador), 11.30% are Evangelical Protestants, 1.29% are Jehovah's Witnesses and 6.97% other (mainly Jewish, Buddhists and Latter-day Saints). In the early part of the 20th century, Ecuador made an effort to peacefully define its eastern Amazonian borders with its neighbours through negotiation. This caused a long-simmering dispute between Ecuador and Peru, which ultimately led to fighting between the two countries; first a border skirmish in January–February 1981 known as the Paquisha Incident, and ultimately full-scale warfare in January 1995 where the Ecuadorian military shot down Peruvian aircraft and helicopters and Peruvian infantry marched into southern Ecuador. Ecuador protested that it claimed the Amazon Basin between the Caqueta river and the Marañon-Amazon river. Ecuador has a small area of truly dry climate at the Santa Elena Peninsula along the southern coast, with annual rainfall decreasing from about 40 inches (1,000 mm) near Guayaquil to only 4 … [136] However, some public hospitals are in poor condition and often lack necessary supplies to attend the high demand of patients. In 2008, the government introduced universal and compulsory social security coverage. In addition, the government waives the right to tax increases in raw material prices and foreign exchange repatriations. The highland rivers broaden as they enter the more level areas of the Costa and the Oriente. [142] In rural areas, only 10% of the children go on to high school. [132], The public healthcare system should not be confused with the Ecuadorian Social Security healthcare service, which is dedicated to individuals with formal employment and who are affiliated obligatorily through their employers. He took office on August 10, as the first constitutionally elected president after nearly a decade of civilian and military dictatorships. Ecuador has a varied topography that includes coastal plains, central highlands, and a flat eastern jungle. These terminal degrees, as in the case of the PhD in other countries, were the main requirement for an individual to be accepted in academia as a professor or researcher. As a general rule, small elements of zambos and mulattoes coexisted among the overwhelming mestizo population of coastal Ecuador throughout its history as gold miners in Loja, Zaruma, and Zamora and as shipbuilders and plantation workers around the city of Guayaquil. Quito's altitude is listed at 2,820 metres (9,250 feet). A few months later, a part of the Peruvian liberation army of San Martin decided to occupy the independent cities of Tumbez and Jaén with the intention of using these towns as springboards to occupy the independent city of Guayaquil and then to liberate the rest of the Audiencia de Quito (Ecuador). In the Sierra region, the streams and rivers are narrow and flow rapidly over precipitous slopes. He willed that his heart be buried in Quito, his favorite city, and the rest of his body be buried with his ancestors in Cuzco. B. According to the peace negotiations Peru agreed to return Guayaquil, Tumbez, and Jaén; despite this, Peru returned Guayaquil, but failed to return Tumbes and Jaén, alleging that it was not obligated to follow the agreements, since the Gran Colombia ceased to exist when it divided itself into three different nations - Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. The 1797 Riobamba earthquake, which caused up to 40,000 casualties, was studied by Alexander von Humboldt, when he visited the area in 1801–1802. The country has two cities UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Quito and Cuenca, as well as two natural UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Galapagos Islands and Sangay National Park in addition to one World Biosphere Reserve, such as the Cajas Massif. Tecnocumbia and Rockola are clear examples of the influence of foreign cultures. Geography, Climate, and Biodiversity of Ecuador . Auxiliary organs are as follows: notaries, court auctioneers, and court receivers. President and General José de La Mar, who was born in Ecuador, believing his opportunity had come to annex the District of Ecuador to Peru, personally, with a Peruvian force, invaded and occupied Guayaquil and a few cities in the Loja region of southern Ecuador on November 28, 1828. On August 10, 1809, the city's criollos called for independence from Spain (first among the peoples of Latin America). Ecuador is divided into 24 provinces (Spanish: provincias), each with its own administrative capital: The provinces are divided into cantons and further subdivided into parishes (parroquias). Since African slavery was not the workforce of the Spanish colonies in the Andes Mountains, given the subjugation of the Amerindian people through proselytization and encomiendas, the minority population of African descent is mostly found in the coastal northern province of Esmeraldas. Ecuador finished in 2nd place in the CONMEBOL qualifiers behind Argentina and above the team that would become World Champions, Brazil. Climate . Galápagos, despite being included within Region 5,[50] is also under a special unit.[51]. The Galapagos and the coast are influenced by ocean currents. Gran Colombia had always protested Peru for the return of Jaen and Tumbes for almost a decade, then finally Bolivar after long and futile discussion over the return of Jaen, Tumbes, and part of Mainas, declared war. During this period, Texaco drilled 339 wells in 15 petroleum fields and abandoned 627 toxic wastewater pits, as well as other elements of the oil infrastructure. Since everything from gas to groceries costs far less than in North America, it is a popular choice for those who are looking to make the most of their retirement budget.[116]. Ecuador is a member of the United Nations (and most of its specialized agencies) and a member of many regional groups, including the Rio Group, the Latin American Economic System, the Latin American Energy Organization, the Latin American Integration Association, the Andean Community of Nations, and the Bank of the South (Spanish: Banco del Sur or BancoSur). [129][130] The Ministry of the Public Health (Ministerio de Salud Pública del Ecuador) is the responsible entity of the regulation and creation of the public health policies and health care plans. They were defeated by England in the second round. One region consolidated under a confederation called the Shyris, which exercised organized trading and bartering between the different regions. The public healthcare system allows patients to be treated without an appointment in public general hospitals by general practitioners and specialists in the outpatient clinic (Consulta Externa) at no cost. In a year, the rainfall is 2162 mm | 85.1 inch. [41][43], The laws also forbid articles and media messages that could favor or disfavor some political message or candidate. The Italian government came to be more interested in the emigration phenomenon in Ecuador because of the necessity of finding an outlet for the large number of immigrants who traditionally went to the United States but who could no longer enter this country because of the new measures that imposed restrictions in the 1920s. Of this, 276,841 km2 (106,889 sq mi) is land and 6,720 km2 (2,595 sq mi) water. The public finance of Ecuador consists of the Central Bank of Ecuador (BCE), the National Development Bank (BNF), the State Bank. Both sides logically presented their cases, but no one seemed to give up their claims. Quito is located in the northern highlands of Ecuador in the Guayllabamba river basin. Colombia protested stating that its claims extended south toward the Napo and Amazon Rivers. Various peoples had settled in the area of future Ecuador before the arrival of the Incas. [63] Additionally, oil exploitation of the Amazon rainforest has led to the release of billions of gallons of untreated wastes, gas, and crude oil into the environment,[64] contaminating ecosystems and causing detrimental health effects to Amerindian peoples. Peru briefly occupied Guayaquil again in 1860, since Peru thought that Ecuador was selling some of the disputed land for development to British bond holders, but returned Guayaquil after a few months. Ecuador has a total area of 283,561 km2 (109,484 sq mi), including the Galápagos Islands. Pérez also set a world best in the 2003 World Championships of 1:17:21 for the 20-km (12 mi) distance. The 2002 FIFA World Cup qualifying campaign was considered a huge success for the country and its inhabitants. [2] Coastal areas are affected by ocean currents and are hot and rainy between January and April.[3]. [61] A program begun in 2008, Sociobosque, is preserving another 2.3% of total land area (6,295 km2, or 629,500 ha) by paying private landowners or community landowners (such as Amerindian tribes) incentives to maintain their land as native ecosystems such as native forests or grasslands. The music of Ecuador has a long history. [111], A prominent East Asian Latino community mainly consists of those of Japanese and Chinese descent, whose ancestors arrived as miners, farmhands and fishermen in the late 19th century. Part of Ecuador's population can speak Amerindian languages, in some cases as a second language. He won the 2019 Giro d'Italia[128]. -, This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 08:24. There are very small communities in Cuenca. [105], The first Jews arrived in Ecuador in the 16th and 17th centuries. One exception is "The Ecuadorian Deception," a murder mystery/thriller authored by American Bear Mills. During the struggle for independence, before Peru or Ecuador became independent nations, a few areas of the former Vice Royalty of New Granada - Guayaquil, Tumbez, and Jaén - declared themselves independent from Spain. The negotiations turned into intense arguments during the next 7 months and finally on September 29, 1937, the Peruvian representatives decided to break off the negotiations without submitting the dispute to arbitration because the direct negotiations were going nowhere. A number of bloody battles took place until finally Huáscar was captured. The politics of Ecuador are multi-party. The Pastaza includes the Agoyan waterfall, which at sixty-one meters (200 feet) is the highest waterfall in Ecuador. This branch is responsible for promoting transparency and control plans publicly, as well as plans to design mechanisms to combat corruption, as also designate certain authorities, and be the regulatory mechanism of accountability in the country. The final border demarcation came into effect on May 13, 1999 and the multi-national MOMEP (Military Observer Mission for Ecuador and Peru) troop deployment withdrew on June 17, 1999.[29]. It supports the "Albert Einstein School", where Jewish history, religion, and Hebrew classes are offered. This important date was established by the Spaniards on June 24, coincidentally the same date when Amerindian people celebrated their rituals of Inti Raymi. There are 686 malaria cases per 100,000 people. The Transparency and Social Control consists of the Council of Citizen Participation and Social Control, an ombudsman, the Comptroller General of the State, and the superintendents. I t is interesting to see that in the tropics very few Latin Americans distinguish between climate and weather and they use the two words for both meanings. This new reorganization, although very ambitious, lacked the proper path to the homologation of diplomas for highly educated professionals graduated in the country or even for the ones graduated in foreign institutions. The temperature here averages 25.2 °C | 77.4 °F. Churrasco is a staple food of the coastal region, especially Guayaquil. Would you like Wikipedia to always look as professional and up-to-date? The Borja government concluded an accord leading to the disbanding of the small terrorist group, "¡Alfaro Vive, Carajo!" [citation needed] These include canned foods, liquor, jewelry, furniture, and more. In 2009, the new administration at the Defense Ministry launched a deep restructuring within the forces, increasing spending budget to $1,691,776,803, an increase of 25%.[52]. The best known art styles from Ecuador belonged to the Escuela Quiteña (Quito School), which developed from the 16th to 18th centuries, examples of which are on display in various old churches in Quito. EPN is known for research and education in the applied science, astronomy, atmospheric physics, engineering and physical sciences. The legacy of both empires is reflected in Ecuador's ethnically diverse population, with most of its 17.1 million people being mestizos, followed by large minorities of European, Native American, and African descendants. On October 9, 1820, the Department of Guayaquil became the first territory in Ecuador to gain its independence from Spain, and it spawned most of the Ecuadorian coastal provinces, establishing itself as an independent state. Places like Quito, the capital, are close to 10,000 feet (3000 meters) high! Following the battle, Ecuador joined Simón Bolívar's Republic of Gran Colombia, also including modern-day Colombia, Venezuela and Panama. Ecuador has a highly changeable climate, which means that it can be variable at any time. The climate here is tropical. Judges are renewed by thirds every three years pursuant to the Judicial Code. Atahualpa marched south to Cuzco and massacred the royal family associated with his brother. To install click the Add extension button. The 1944 Glorious May Revolution followed a military-civilian rebellion and a subsequent civic strike which successfully removed Carlos Arroyo del Río as a dictator from Ecuador's government. Elections were held on April 29, 1979, under a new constitution. Although Equador is not a particularly large country, there is great variety in the climate, largely determined by altitude. It will transport 120 000 passagers daily. While Ecuador had to give up its decades-old territorial claims to the eastern slopes of the Cordillera, as well as to the entire western area of Cenepa headwaters, Peru was compelled to give to Ecuador, in perpetual lease but without sovereignty, 1 km2 (0.39 sq mi) of its territory, in the area where the Ecuadorian base of Tiwinza – focal point of the war – had been located within Peruvian soil and which the Ecuadorian Army held during the conflict. [91] It also serves on the World Trade Organization (WTO), in addition to the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), Corporación Andina de Fomento (CAF) and other multilateral agencies. (May 2012), 2017 Service Year Report of Jehovah's Witnesses. bounded on the west by the Pacific Ocean, and has 2,337 km (1,452 mi) of coastline. ("Alfaro Lives, Dammit! [79] This is explained to an extent by emigration and the economic stability achieved after adopting the U.S. dollar as official means of transaction (before 2000, the Ecuadorian sucre was prone to rampant inflation). Focused on considering it as a country friendly and respectful of the nature, natural biodiversity and cultural diversity of the peoples. In its upper reaches, the Napo flows rapidly until the confluence with one of its major tributaries, the Coca River, where it slows and levels off. Peru ignored these protests and created the Department of Loreto in 1853 with its capital in Iquitos which it had recently invaded and systematically began to occupy using the river systems in all the territories claimed by both Colombia and Ecuador. During the course of the Ecuadorian–Peruvian War, Peru gained control over part of the disputed territory and some parts of the province of El Oro, and some parts of the province of Loja, demanding that the Ecuadorian government give up its territorial claims. The Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito and the José Joaquín de Olmedo International Airport in Guayaquil have experienced a high increase in demand and have required modernization. [68], Ecuador has a developing economy that is highly dependent on commodities, namely petroleum and agricultural products. [139], The Ecuadorian Constitution requires that all children attend school until they achieve a "basic level of education", which is estimated at nine school years. It is mild year-round in the mountain valleys, with a humid subtropical climate in coastal areas and rainforest in lowlands. The inflation rate until January 2008, was about 1.14%, the highest in the past year, according to the government. A Day in the life. Because of its location at the equator, Ecuador experiences little variation in daylight hours during the course of a year. Since 1936, voting is compulsory for all literate persons aged 18–65, optional for all other citizens.[40]. Based on weather reports collected during 2005–2015. Ecuador lies directly on the equator, so the entire country enjoys 12 hours of direct equatorial daylight 365 days a year. Ecuadorian cuisine is diverse, varying with the altitude and associated agricultural conditions. The story is based on a real pirate by the name of George d'Hout who terrorized Guayaquil in the 16th Century. [citation needed] Ecuador has qualified for the final rounds of the 2002, the 2006, & the 2014 FIFA World Cups. [95][96] [107], Iglesia de San Sebastián church in Cuenca, Iglesia y Convento de San Francisco in Quito. [78] In 2001, it was estimated at 40% of the population, while by 2011 the figure dropped to 17.4% of the total population. He gave the territories pertaining to present-day Ecuador and northern Peru to his favorite son Atahualpa, who was to rule from Quito; and he gave the rest to Huáscar, who was to rule from Cuzco. Huáscar did not recognize his father's will, since it did not follow Inca traditions of naming an Inca through the priests. This infuriated Atahualpa so much that he threw the Bible to the ground. [106][citation needed] Today the Jewish Community of Ecuador (Comunidad Judía del Ecuador) has its seat in Quito and has approximately 200 members. It is now known that these highly polluting and now obsolete technologies were used as a way to reduce expenses. The climate of Ecuador is tropical and varies with altitude and region, due to differences in elevation and, to a degree, in proximity to the equator. Based on weather reports collected during 2005–2015. The Peruvian Navy blocked the port of Guayaquil, almost cutting all supplies to the Ecuadorian troops. This law set the border at the river Carchi and the eastern border that stretched to Brazil at the Caquetá river. The oldest observatory in South America is the Quito Astronomical Observatory and is located in Quito, Ecuador. The valley of Guayllabamba River where Quito lies is flanked by volcanoes, some of them snow-capped, and visible from the city on a clear day. The Pacific coastal area has a tropical climate with a severe rainy season. Fifteen national constituency elected assembly, two Assembly members elected from each province and one for every 100,000 inhabitants or fraction exceeding 150,000, according to the latest national population census. These negotiations were long and tiresome. Spring, summer, and fall are generally the "wet seasons". [37], A series of protests began on 3 October 2019 against the end of fuel subsidies and austerity measures adopted by President of Ecuador Lenín Moreno and his administration. One of the earliest examples is Jacinto Collahuazo,[120] an Amerindian chief of a northern village in today's Ibarra, born in the late 1600s. Its political and military power came under the rule of the Duchicela blood-line. Averages are for Quito / Mariscal Sucre, which is 6 miles from Quito. Surfing in Ecuador is very popular because of the year-round steady climate. The military tradition starts in Gran Colombia, where a sizable army was stationed in Ecuador due to border disputes with Peru, which claimed territories under its political control when it was a Spanish vice-royalty. Though most features of Ecuadorian Spanish are universal to the Spanish-speaking world, there are several idiosyncrasies. Popular sentiment in Ecuador became strongly nationalistic against Peru: graffiti could be seen on the walls of Quito referring to Peru as the "Cain de Latinoamérica", a reference to the murder of Abel by his brother Cain in the Book of Genesis. We have created a browser extension. UN's Human Rights Council's (HRC) Universal Periodic Review (UPR) has treated the restrictions on freedom of expression and efforts to control NGOs and recommended that Ecuador should stop the criminal sanctions for the expression of opinions, and delay in implementing judicial reforms. Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea! See also; References; External links; Ecuador map of Köppen climate classification. In Ecuador, there are seven regions, or zones, each shaped by the following provinces: Quito and Guayaquil are Metropolitan Districts. Annual Weather Averages Near Quito. [73] The climates in Colombia are characterized for having tropical rainforests, savannas, steppes, deserts and mountain climate, mountain climate further divided into tierra caliente (hot land) tierra templada (temperate land) tierra fría (cold land), tierra helada (frozen land) and Páramo. According to the Ecuadorian musicologist Segundo Luis Moreno, Sanjuanito was danced by Amerindian people during San Juan Bautista's birthday. [143] The Ministry of Education states that the mean number of years completed is 6.7. [31] He brought Ecuador into the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas in June 2009. In the small Chota Valley of the province of Imbabura exists a small community of Africans among the province's predominantly mestizo population. It can be noted that, after World War I, people from Liguria, still constituted the majority of the flow, even though they then represented only one third of the total number of immigrants in Ecuador. [citation needed], In the Amazon region, a dietary staple is the yuca, elsewhere called cassava. Although well-equipped general hospitals are found in the major cities or capitals of provinces, there are basic hospitals in the smaller towns and canton cities for family care consultation and treatments in pediatrics, gynecology, clinical medicine, and surgery. Members of the National Court of Justice are appointed by the National Judicial Council for nine-year terms. This month should be avoided if you are not a big fan of rain. The history behind the Inca drama "Ollantay", the oldest literary piece in existence for any Amerindian language in America,[122] shares some similarities with the work of Collahuazo. Later, Ecuador contended that the Republic of Colombia, while reorganizing its government, unlawfully made its eastern border provisional and that Colombia extended its claims south to the Napo River because it said that the Government of Popayán extended its control all the way to the Napo River. [118] Other Amerindian languages spoken in Ecuador include Awapit (spoken by the Awá), A'ingae (spoken by the Cofan), Shuar Chicham (spoken by the Shuar), Achuar-Shiwiar (spoken by the Achuar and the Shiwiar), Cha'palaachi (spoken by the Chachi), Tsa'fiki (spoken by the Tsáchila), Paicoca (spoken by the Siona and Secoya), and Wao Tededeo (spoken by the Waorani). In the professional realm, a terminal degree granted by an accredited institution automatically provides a professional license to the individual. However, continuing economic problems undermined the popularity of the ID, and opposition parties gained control of Congress in 1999. However, what was pending was whether the new border around the Jaen region should follow the Chinchipe River or the Huancabamba River. Ecuador lies between latitudes 2°N and 5°S, Branch members hold office for five years. Before we get to the detailed charts, we have a number of climate charts organized by specific months. [41], Ecuador joined the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in 1973 and suspended its membership in 1992. The major routes are Pan American (under enhancement from four to six lanes from Rumichaca to Ambato, the conclusion of 4 lanes on the entire stretch of Ambato and Riobamba and running via Riobamba to Loja). The people of the coast developed a fishing, hunting, and gathering culture; the people of the highland Andes developed a sedentary agricultural way of life, and the people of the Amazon basin developed a nomadic hunting-and-gathering mode of existence. They were led by Juan Pío Montúfar, Quiroga, Salinas, and Bishop Cuero y Caicedo. Much later migrations to Ecuador may have come via the Amazon tributaries, others descended from northern South America, and others ascended from the southern part of South America through the Andes. The White Ecuadorians (White Latin American) are a minority accounting for 6.1% of the population of Ecuador and can be found throughout all of Ecuador primarily around the urban areas. The 1930s and 1940s were marked by instability and emergence of populist politicians, such as five-time President José María Velasco Ibarra. [85] The country's vast resources include large amounts of timber across the country, like eucalyptus and mangroves. The rehabilitation and reopening of the Ecuadorian railroad and use of it as a tourist attraction is one of the recent developments in transportation matters.[98]. The Center for Research and Technology Development in Ecuador is an autonomous center for research and technology development funded by Senecyt. San Martin's plans were thwarted when Bolívar, with the help of Marshal Antonio José de Sucre and the Gran Colombian liberation force, descended from the Andes mountains and occupied Guayaquil; they also annexed the newly liberated Audiencia de Quito to the Republic of Gran Colombia. It has around 1640 kinds of birds. As today, a master's degree is a requirement to keep an academic position and at least a foreign PhD to attain or retain the status of rector (president of a university) or décano (dean). Glacier shrinkage is a natural phenomenon that has existed; however, in the last 20 years climate change has exacerbated shrinkage. About 300 institutes of higher education offer two to three years of post-secondary vocational or technical training. The treatment in this case respects the culture of the community. Overview of Ecuador’s Climatology To understand the implications of climate change on Ecuador, it is useful to have an understanding of both current and historical climate trends. The coup d'état was led by General Guillermo Rodríguez and executed by navy commander Jorge Queirolo G. The new president exiled José María Velasco to Argentina. However, in 2004, the National Council of Higher Education (CONESUP), started the reorganization of all the degree-granting schemes of the accredited universities in order to pair them with foreign counterparts. Similarly, a number of loyal Inca subjects from Peru and Bolivia were brought to Ecuador to prevent rebellion. Ecuador protested this secret treaty, since Colombia gave away Ecuadorian claimed land to Peru that Ecuador had given to Colombia in 1916. Culturally, the Toquilla straw hat and the culture of the Zapara indigenous people are recognized. Some examples in this group are the Gynecologic Hospitals, or Maternities, Children Hospitals, Geriatric Hospitals, and Oncology Institutes. Even though their languages were unrelated, these groups developed similar groups of cultures, each based in different environments. This liberal wing retained power until the military "Julian Revolution" of 1925. [87] Its main functions are to organize, control elections, and punish the infringement of electoral rules. [132], Community health care centers (Centros de Salud) are found inside metropolitan areas of cities and in rural areas. [1] Contents. The existence of his literary work came to light many centuries later, when a crew of masons was restoring the walls of a colonial church in Quito and found a hidden manuscript. Although the new government lasted no more than two months, it had important repercussions and was an inspiration for the independence movement of the rest of Spanish America. Climate. These glaciers in Ecuador play a major role in the climate because they gather the atmospheric circulation from the Pacific and the humidity of the Amazon region.[4]. [67] This American oil company operated in the Ecuadorian Amazon region between 1964 and 1992. The first president of Ecuador was the Venezuelan-born Juan José Flores, who was ultimately deposed, followed by several authoritarian leaders, such as Vicente Rocafuerte; José Joaquín de Olmedo; José María Urbina; Diego Noboa; Pedro José de Arteta; Manuel de Ascásubi; and Flores's own son, Antonio Flores Jijón, among others. The executive branch includes 23 ministries. In 1563, Quito became the seat of a real audiencia (administrative district) of Spain and part of the Viceroyalty of Peru and later the Viceroyalty of New Granada. In January 2009, the Central Bank of Ecuador (BCE) put the 2010 growth forecast at 6.88%. In contrast, when the Incas made incursions into coastal Ecuador and the eastern Amazon jungles of Ecuador, they found both the environment and indigenous people more hostile. [7][8] The largest ethnic group (as of 2010[update]) is the Mestizos, who are Amerindians with mixture or cultural influence from Spanish colonists, and constitute about 71% of the population. Later, a brief war erupted between Colombia and Peru, over Peru's claims to the Caquetá region, which ended with Peru reluctantly signing the Salomon-Lozano Treaty on March 24, 1922. On May 6, 1904, Ecuador signed the Tobar-Rio Branco Treaty recognizing Brazil's claims to the Amazon in recognition of Ecuador's claim to be an Amazonian country to counter Peru's earlier Treaty with Brazil back on October 23, 1851. [citation needed] The unusually high elevation of the home stadium in Quito often affects the performance of visiting teams. [citation needed], There is a small number of Eastern Orthodox Christians, Amerindian religions, Muslims (see Islam in Ecuador), Buddhists and Baháʼí. In the case of Ecuador, Flores-based Ecuador's de jure claims on the following cedulas - Real Cedula of 1563, 1739, and 1740; with modifications in the Amazon Basin and Andes Mountains that were introduced through the Treaty of Guayaquil (1829) which Peru reluctantly signed, after the overwhelmingly outnumbered Gran Colombian force led by Antonio José de Sucre defeated President and General La Mar's Peruvian invasion force in the Battle of Tarqui. The central government polity is a four-yearly elected presidential, unicameral representative democracy.The President of Ecuador is head of state and head of the army on a multi-party system, and leads a cabinet with further executive power. Through protocolized meetings between representatives of Peru and Gran Colombia, the border was set as Tumbes river in the west and in the east the Maranon and Amazon rivers were to be followed toward Brazil as the most natural borders between them. The coldest month is July with an average maximum temperature of 21°C (69°F). One of the points of conflict was the imposition of obtaining foreign degrees to current academicians. Among the traditional conferred terminal degrees can be noted the doctorate for medicine and law schools or engineering, physics, chemistry, or mathematics for polytechnic or technology institutes. There is a rainy season in this region, which occurs between December and April. Institutions that have High Performance Computing centers:[150], Currently, the politics of research and investigation are managed by the National Secretary of Higher Education, Science, and Technology (Senescyt). Plantain- and peanut-based dishes are the basis of most coastal meals. Peru contested Ecuador's claims with the newly discovered Real Cedula of 1802, by which Peru claims the King of Spain had transferred these lands from the Viceroyalty of New Granada to the Viceroyalty of Peru. The most popular sport in Ecuador, as in most South American countries, is football. The war ended when a triumphant heavily outnumbered southern Gran Colombian army at Battle of Tarqui dated February 27, 1829, led by Antonio José de Sucre, defeated the Peruvian invasion force led by President La Mar. Ecuador is unique in its geography because it is located on the Earth's equator. Ecuador has often placed great emphasis on multilateral approaches to international issues. The Galápagos Islands have no significant rivers. Given its geographical location and rugged topography, Ecuador is a highly vulnerable country to impacts of climate change (UNFCCC First National Communication, Quito, 2000). New infectious diseases such as smallpox, endemic to the Europeans, caused high fatalities among the Amerindian population during the first decades of Spanish rule, as they had no immunity. The Pastaza is formed by the confluence of the Chambo and the Patate rivers, both of which rise in the Sierra. The few exceptions are the longer, perennial rivers that flow throughout the external coast from the internal coast and La Sierra on their way to the Pacific Ocean. A little later, freed slaves from Colombia known as cimarrones joined them. Vice President Alfredo Palacio took his place and remained in office until the presidential election of 2006, in which Rafael Correa gained the presidency. The Amazonian people and the Cayapas of Coastal Ecuador were the only groups to resist Inca and Spanish domination, maintaining their language and culture well into the 21st century. Encocados (dishes that contain a coconut sauce) are also very popular. Today you can find a small community of Africans in the Catamayo valley of the predominantly mestizo population of Loja. Ecuador Weather, climate and geography Weather and climate Best time to visit. Nearby Salinas was the site of the ISA World Junior Surfing Games Ecuador in 2009. The icons of the Ecuadorian military forces are Marshall Antonio José de Sucre and General Eloy Alfaro. [citation needed]. Thus, in addition to criollos, mestizos, and Afro-Ecuadorians, some people belong to the Amerindian nations scattered in a few places in the coast, Quechua Andean villages, and the Amazonian jungle. [132] [citation needed]. [74][75] The monthly unemployment rate remained at about 6 and 8 percent from December 2007 until September 2008; however, it went up to about 9 percent in October and dropped again in November 2008 to 8 percent. Eligibility and subsidy rates for this program are determined based on the poverty in the region, the number of hectares that will be protected, and the type of ecosystem of the land to be protected, among other factors. On July 28, 1821, Peruvian independence was proclaimed in Lima by the Liberator San Martin, and Tumbes and Jaen, which were included as part of the revolution of Trujillo by the Peruvian occupying force, had the whole region swear allegiance to the new Peruvian flag and incorporated itself into Peru, even though Peru was not completely liberated from Spain. The native confederations that gave them the most problems were deported to distant areas of Peru, Bolivia, and north Argentina. The dry season (winter) runs from June to September and the wet season (summer) is from October to May. Each civilisation developed its own distinctive architecture, pottery, and religious interests. Annual Weather Averages in Cuenca. Most of them are Sephardic Anusim (Crypto-Jews) and many still speak Judaeo-Spanish (Ladino) language. The summers are much rainier than the winters in Quevedo. Also, it has a huge culture spectrum. Faced with the growth of the tourism sector, in June 1994, the decision was taken to separate tourism from information, so that it is exclusively dedicated to promoting and strengthening this activity. The acting president's wife receives the title of First Lady of Ecuador. Pizarro promised to release Atahualpa if he made good his promise of filling a room full of gold. Manta has some of South America's most breathtaking beaches. The pipeline brought oil from the east side of the Andes to the coast, making Ecuador South America's second largest oil exporter. Also there is a special legal regime for Amerindians. Ecuador has many climate zones, from tropical along coast to cooler and dryer inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands. In the agricultural sector, Ecuador is a major exporter of bananas (first place worldwide in production and export), flowers, and the seventh largest producer of cocoa. The territories of modern-day Ecuador were once home to a variety of Amerindian groups that were gradually incorporated into the Inca Empire during the 15th century. So influential was the military in Ecuador in the early republican period that its first decade was under the control of General Juan José Flores, first president of Ecuador of Venezuelan origin. More rigorously, it denotes the mean and variability of meteorological variables over a time spanning from months to millions of years. On July 21, 1924, the Ponce-Castro Oyanguren Protocol was signed between Ecuador and Peru where both agreed to hold direct negotiations and to resolve the dispute in an equitable manner and to submit the differing points of the dispute to the United States for arbitration. When Ecuador seceded from the Gran Colombia, Peru decided not to follow the treaty of Guayaquil of 1829 or the protocoled agreements made. In 1532, a small band of Spaniards headed by Francisco Pizarro landed in Tumbez and marched over the Andes Mountains until they reached Cajamarca, where the new Inca Atahualpa was to hold an interview with them. The Afro-Ecuadorians are a minority population (7%) in Ecuador, that includes the Mulattos and zambos, and are largely based in the Esmeraldas province and to a lesser degree in the predominantly Mestizo provinces of Coastal Ecuador - Guayas and Manabi.

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