The study found out that the income of the trader, their position in the value chain, the sex of the respondent, access to media, and being a household head were major socioeconomic characteristics affecting the adoption of RPCs. the tomato is sliced. Lycopene content increased in genotype G 13 and G 11 from slightly saline to moderate saline soil respectively. Therefore, genotype G 14 and G 11 could be recommended for high vitamin-C and lycopene content to the farmers for cultivation under slightly saline to moderate saline soil in the coastal regions of Bangladesh. Dig a hole for each tomato plant. passing into the soil for their cocoon stage. These companies need an assured, supply in terms of quantity and quality, and m, produce beforehand. It is important to remember that low-quality fresh tomatoes will. Packaging material is expensive, in terms. Clearly it is difficult to keep tomatoes at cool temperatures without the, Hence storage methods have to be adapted to methods used locally, For example, one method of storing nearly ripe tomatoes is to place, them in green leaves that have been washed. Therefore, variety ARP tomato d2 is promising variety in providing high yield for the test sites. W, again once the product has been processed. Costs will, vary depending on the situation. Salt can be added to taste. It is important to work, out how much money has to be paid back and when. For example, part of the fresh produce may be, sold to a processor, part to a wholesaler and part directly at the local. The reason is simple: when a farm, makes a cash payment, both cash amount in assets and liabilities will, be reduced at the same time. As no rain may enter a closed greenhouse, it is extremely important, that the crops have their own water supply, to know how much water your crop needs and how much water can be, Plants need water mainly for transpiration, but 5-10% is needed for, their growth. Some examples of crop rotation with tomato are: mato two weeks before the second upland rice harvest. Multiple strategies of using cultural, physical, mechanical, biological and chemical options help to limit development and spread of diseases. companies. Signs of infection are similar to those of Fusarium, but they appear, The fungus spreads through crop debris, especially in slightly acidic, soils (low pH). evaluate all aspects of the farm business in money terms. The lower side-shoots should be removed by pinching them out with, the fingers. This document is HS739, one of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, UF/IFAS Extension. How-, ever, they may transmit viruses, which can cause much greater dam-, age. virus into a tomato crop from weeds or neighbouring crops. ), which represses rather than controlling pests. Application: Dissolve 500 g soap in 4 litres of boiling water, 8 litres of kerosene to make an emulsion. It is easy to control fungal diseases by using resistant varieties. It is a very valuable kind of manure as plants can easily ab-, first mixing it with an equal amount of crumbly soil or sand. An entire, Fungi are organisms that usually consist of filaments (hyphae). This will not affect the cocoons in the soil so repeat spray-. terminate types. glass, plastic sheeting or mosquito netting, or a combination of these. It is important to pinch out side-shoots. once in every 3 cropping seasons, e.g. planted in between the tomatoes. Beans, marigold, cowpea and green leafy vegetables are the, common crops that are mixed to avoid the incidence of pest and dis-, tion, water sources must be checked to ensure that they do not become, contaminated with the water draining out of the tomato beds. researchers in each of the three zones evaluated several tomato varieties for growth and production and recommended those varieties for use in the zones in which they proved successful (see table 1). For example, you can apply half when preparing the beds or mixed with the soil in, the holes for the seedlings. Household questionnaire survey and interview was used to collect primary data from a sample of 45 farmers randomly selected and proportionately distributed among the four wards. that a community or society needs to func-, tion, such as transportation and communica-, tions systems, water and power lines, and, public institutions including schools, post of-, chiefly in blood, the reproductive organs, to-, potassium, sodium, or zinc, that is essential to. Transplanting should. 15 0 obj It is also possible, to add a permissible amount of chlorine, to heat the water to several degrees above the temperature of the to-, mato pulp. New seed must be, Hybrid tomato varieties have many advantages compared to open-, pollinated varieties. The plant residues enhance the beneficial insects like predatory bee-. Insect pests can be controlled almost com-, pletely in a biological way when the crop is grown in greenhouses. When these stems are 1 -, 1.25 m long, the tops should also be pinched off. The water requirement of outdoor grown tomatoes varies between 4000 - 6000 m³/ha. too strong and can damage the sprouting plants. heated, pulp in a sterilised cotton sack from a spring scale (Figure 24). PROTA 15: Stimulants The addition of lemon juice or citric acid (4-5 g, per litre) is recommended to make the product more acid. comes to bargaining with rural merchants, wholesalers and retailers. Stage 2: Seeds have a tan colour (mature) and some juice present. The principal guide-, lines for organic production are to use materials and practices that en-, hance the ecological balance of natural systems and that integrate the, parts of the farming system into an ecological process. CMV is. PROTA 16: Fibres This controls the development and spread of diseases. Growing Tomatoes in Containers. Turning ripeness stage: 10% to 30% of the tomato skin is not green. Pakistan Agriculture Research Council . DNA was isolated following the protocols of Bioland Plant Genomic and polymerase chain reaction If a town or city is further away from the farm, the cost of trans-. These picking containers need to be emptied into larger con-, tainers placed in picking areas. Round, brown spots (with concentric rings) appear on the, leaves, reaching a diameter of 1.5 cm. The sticks should be, at least 1.5 m long, as they will be pushed 40-50, cm into the ground. The containers, boiling water or scalding steam. The plants will be ready for transplanting outside 7. weeks after sowing the seeds. enough money to carry out all farming operations you plan to do. pyrethrum, derris, sabadilla). "Tomato Cultivation Guide by Haifa Group - find out information about nutrigation, fertigation, plant analysis guide & nutrient sufficiency ranges The prices are determined by the supply of and the de-. The lower the. The bacteria are spread through irrigation water. be retained. The leaves of infected plants become yellow, wilt and dry up. Production of tomato can further be increased if improved cultural practices are combined with good quality seeds. Fresh, table tomatoes will need to be stored somewhere where they can ripen, rooms are required. as the neem tree is common in tropical areas. Second, it requires the mastery, of special skills and a close attention to detail. During the journey the tomatoes, transported in large containers that have cold storage facilities and, Fresh tomatoes can be stored after they have been harvested and sort-, ed or they can first be packaged before storing. The disadvantages are that they only pro-, vide a limited temperature gain, opportunities for ventilation are very. Moreover, it can be re-used many times unlike the baskets and does allow more than 25kg which is the standard quantity a packaging/harvesting container should carry. Hybrid seeds can also, be bought from commercial seed companies. They are most effective in controlling the pests and diseases, but they. crop and obtaining a reasonably steady yield. Since February 2003, PROT, objectives are to bring the ‘world literature’, accessible only to the resourceful happy few, tribute to greater awareness and sustained use of the, tional knowledge and intellectual property rights. Chemical fertiliser, is relatively expensive, but in some areas, in terms of nutrients pro-, vided, it is less expensive than manure. The tall types have to be staked, caged or trellised (see Chapter 4). The high water content of tomatoes makes them vul-, nerable to post-harvest losses. for pests and diseases to enter the tomato. Ensure that the plastic film cannot blow away. However, like all other, products money also has its costs. Further anchoring, of the tunnel is done by a retaining cord or wire over the plastic film at, each support hoop. Rotate tomato with other crops such as cereals, cabbage, onion, family (e.g. It is used when a, crop has a specific deficiency (e.g. equals the same amount, $150. vals of about 2 or 3 metres and anchored in the ground. on straw). More raw materials can be bought at one time, for example, better negotiation power with rural traders, processors, wholesalers, and retailers. If you do not have much storage capacity, the surplus tomatoes will rot, unless they are is preserved. Nematodes will survive in soil as long as, Chemical pesticides (nematicides) and soil sterilants (including steam-, treatment) are effective but costly control methods. However, it is easy to spot, bad quality seed before germination takes place. When using hybrids, new seeds, should be purchased each season. Organic farming leads, to reduced input costs, improved soil health, reduced environmental, impact, and a better functioning of agro-ecosystem. Tomato production is a growing category worldwide, with consumers demanding a wider range of innovative, value-added products, while demands on your production to handle wide quality variations in raw tomato pastes are also increasing. Joining forces creates an opportunity to, share processing costs, and to process, pack and store greater quanti-, ties of produce. opportunity to bring tomatoes to the market. Nipping en-, The tip of the main stem of the tall type is pinched off when 3 to 5, leaves are fully grown. The seeds you need should then be peeled and ground. Learn more about the plant, its cultivation, and its history of domestication. Competition from very large commercial processors. These, are long water containers in the reception areas that look like livestock, drinking troughs. The containers need to hold only tomatoes, that are mature, ripe and free from damage. TOMATOES This production summary provides an overview of growing, harvesting, and post harvesting practices. Soils with very high organic matter content, like peat soils, are less suitable due to their high water holding capac-, Which variety to choose depends on local conditions and the purpose, of growing (Chapter 6). Prior to or during fruit-set: Young plants: leaves adjacent to 2 nd or 3 rd cluster: 20-25. matoes are less likely to get damaged or to rot. Infected plants are stunted and display yellow leaves. Check regularly for the presence of eggs and then take measures to, Use light traps that attract moths at night, preventing them from, Apply wood ash, wood chips or shavings and/or calcium on the. Leaves are yellow and curl upward or downward. Severe strains may cause leaf, CVMV causes yellow mosaic pattern or chlorotic (pale green) spots, on tomato crops. The larvae appear after about 10, days. Also, the inability of the RPCs to contain much tomatoes; high costs associated with the use of RPCs and the familiarity accustomed to the baskets were the major barriers hindering the adoption of RPCs. green vegetables and used to prevent scurvy; status, e.g. The, Marketing is an important activity in any business and should be ap-, proached systematically. As far as the climate is concerned, besides protection against fluctuat-, ing temperatures, protection is also needed against the sun’s powerful, rays (solar radiation), heavy rain, hail and strong wind. Place them, on stands well above the ground. farmers can reduce the number of applications. Rainfall data was obtained from Kenya Meteorological Department in Nairobi. Other significant fresh market producing states are Virginia, Georgia, Ohio, Tennessee, North and South Carolina, New Jersey, and Michigan (Fig 1). It is often necessary to har-, row two times, breaking the clods and removing crop residues to level, Cultivating tomato on raised beds, ridges or furrows facilitates drain-, age of water and irrigation. The F1 hybrids of tomato had, in general, higher marketable yield and number of fruits per plant as compared with their mid-parental values. PVY symptoms vary depending on the virus strain and range from. Aphis gossypii, A. crassivora, A. spirae-. TSWV is transmitted by several thrips species. Tomato Cultivation. if kept at 5°C for longer than 6 to 8 days. It also encourages root growth. It is important to use clean and good, quality water in sorting canals. Costs of actual processing (labour, time, m, Energy sources required for processing may be scarce and may cost, heat resistant containers (bottles or jars), The number and kind of micro-organisms present. Fruits are small in size and often misshapen. This is often done for fresh tomatoes destined for process-, ing by large processing companies. Its cultivation is important to meet up the medicinal value and poverty of the poor people.Therefore an experiment was conducted with the aim to evaluate the performance of some summer todes. If well planned, it will yield profit. If, plants become too large to support themselves, either trim out a few, major branches or add more support canes. The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are small and soft bodied polyphagous pest distributed widely in tropical and subtropical regions of India. The, into the (African) public domain, and con-, tion Phase 2003-2012. The remainder can be applied when the, plants flower or when the fruit is formed. structure in a flat area for your greenhouse project. Fertiliser can be incorporated during field, preparation and bedding operations, or banded to the side of the row at, fertility. A well managed garden or allotment is an asset to any family and vegetable growing can rapidly develop into an absorbing hobby. The first harvest is possible, 45-55 days after flowering, or 90-120 days after sowing. holders and medium-scale commercial farmers. flats should be used when tomatoes are in a greenhouse. Tomato is one of the Fresh Fruits and Vegetables, (FFV) of high-value that is widely consumed fresh (salads), cooked (sauces and soup) or processed (ketchup) for it is rich in minerals, vitamins and dietary fibres and grown in almost every country of the world, ... Water stress and long dry periods cause tomato buds and flowers to wilt and drop off, and the fruits to split. Sheep Breeding Project Report, Economics, Income. Fruit size predominately extra large, uniform, and very similar to Mariana. If tomatoes are grown for seed production some special practices are, needed, from sowing to harvesting. It takes longer to heat the con-, The acidity of the product. It is also impor-, tant to consider how the payback period will affect the money in your. Marcraf-CTA-Agrecol. It may also be critical to apply preventive and curative fungicides. Crops often, need to be protected against a combination of weather conditions. Field tomatoes must be weighed on arrival for processing. They are often the, only source of money in an area and can charge quite high interest, Banks are also available for loans, but usually banks are not interested, in very small loans and demand proof of property as a guarantee. Associations can also obtain advantages when buying raw, materials. Also, the public and private institutions should pay more attention to the design, cost and availability of RPC to the traders. circumstances once a week should be enough. This can be done by beating, the mixture well, or by spraying the solution into the kerosene (use a, mixture, and no oily layer on top. Read More Tomato Price | Tomato Market News Tomato Price : Tomato at Rs.60 per kg. A market is the place where products are exchanged. Mites are spider-like insects (Figure 17). Green, S.K., Ltd. Elms court, Devon, London, UK. ing can be done at the place were the water enters. Fruits show. The structure consists of galva-, nised tubing, which could be reinforced with wires in the length. Farmers need to obtain a price for tomatoes that is higher than the costs in-. The Returnable Plastic Crates (RPCs) were introduced into the tomato industry due to its effectiveness in curbing tomato postharvest losses in Nigeria; however, the level of adoption remains low. market tomato production and contributes significantly to the crop of fresh market tomatoes produced in the U.S. Small pinnates ap-, pear between larger leaflets. sugarcane grown in the furrows between the beds. In greenhouses up to 10,000 m 3/ha of water are required. that they are able to buy a washing and sorting machine. Determinate types stop growing after flowering. A pot experiment was conducted to observe the performances of fifteen tomato genotypes under three different salinity treatments in the net house Tomato-5) and three salinity treatments T 1 (Control), T 2 (8 dS/m), T 3 (12 dS/m) were outlined in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. Manure. The abnormalities described below are not caused by insects or dis-, eases but mostly by nutritional deficiencies and unfavourable climatic, Little splits appear in the (usually ripe) tomato fruit due to large fluc-, tuations in the moisture content of the soil or due to wide fluctuations, of temperature. If a farmer does not, have her own facilities she will have to calculate the costs of renting, tions. Soil, depth of 15 to 20 cm is needed to grow a healthy crop. The end product is dark, red, leathery pieces with a water con-, tent of 15-20 percent. ovate to oblong, covered with glandular hairs. It is important to be aware of the by-products generated by tomato, processing: tomato skins and seeds. There are some . Sup-, pliers are all the people who can and want to sell tomatoes. In India farmers follow a, unique mixed cropping system. Rwanda is a net importer of tomato. If possible, plant during the rainy season. Starting from Seed. farmers to organise packaging operations. 6 stamens, anthers are bright yellow in colour sur-, rounding the style with an elongated sterile tip. but grows well in soils with a pH of 5.5 – 6.8 with adequate nutrient. Becausethey leave residues they also, can do harm to humans and the environment, and therefore should be, applied judiciously and only in cases of emergency, chemical pesticides, we recommend that farmers adhere to the princi-, ples of the Integrated Pest Management (IPM), explained in other, spoon of household soap to the knapsack sprayer, tion in the surface tension, turning the droplets into a film. This is a good, Farming tomatoes requires not only good production, developed into an international partnership of, Preparatory Phase 2000–2003. mechanical cultivation and cultural and biological controls. Long, brown stripes, which can split open, appear on the stem. Keywords: adaptation strategies, rainfall variability, small scale farmers, tomato production. Besides these pesticides there are other ways to suppress the develop-. endobj It is also easily stackable due to its firmness and affords sufficient airflow to the produce (Babarinsa et al., 2018). support the stems while they are growing. Processing of tomatoes consists of canning, freezing, dehydration and juice production. Plants should be fixed securely to the, stake or string supports, beginning about two, strips, horticultural fixing tape or other materials, can be used for fixing. before transplanting, seedlings should be hardened by reducing the, application of water, but 12-14 hours before they are taken out of the, seedbed they should be thoroughly watered again to avoid excessive, damage to the roots. Measures to control this wilting disease: For the following diseases, apply the general control measures discussed, This mildew appears as yellow spots on the leaves and powder from, spores on the underside of these spots. Remove and burn affected plants and plant debris. and should only be considered for larger scale operations. mild mosaic to necrosis. Jagdish Reddy. Its, Harvesting needs to be carried out in dry weather and cool tempera-, Containers must be clean nylon net bags, plastic buckets, or wood. gen with a protein structure that is not visible with the naked eye or, through an ordinary microscope. Small spots appear on the leaves and on the fruit of in-, fected plants. Crop, rotation with cereals or millets is effective in controlling the nematode, People have always protected their crops from unfavourable climatic, effects. Three different types of tomato plants can be distinguished: The tall and bush types are entirely different kinds of crops. MNFS&R/ PARC Hand-holding Initiative: Ministry of National Food Security & Research (MNFSR)/Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC) realized its responsibilities to play advisory role for the promotion of Agricultural Enterprises by using loan scheme by the Govt of Pakistan and other organizations. Provides an opportunity for labelling, which will attract consumers. When you apply for seed, do provide the following information: 1 main use of the product (dried, fresh, for direct use or sale), 2 months in which sowing and planting takes place, 6 information about the soil, such as pH and fertility, 7 altitude of fields which will be planted, Asian vegetable Research & Development Centr, Phone: +886 6 583 7801, Fax: +886 6 583 0009. They are the result of a, continuous process of selection of plants. The cultivated tomato is the second most important vegetable crop in the world in terms of consumption per capita and is the most popular garden vegetable that is eaten directly as a raw vegetable or added as an ingredient to other food items. Foliar application of nutrients (i.e. www.entrepreneurindia.co This places high demands on your production, and especially on your mixing technology. Neem is a fast-growing tree, widespread in South-east Asia, types. Tomato is a typical day neutral plant. If a, processing activity is already in place then it is advisable to process, tomatoes that have not been sold, keeping a careful eye on market. of too much salt in the soil, which is caused by the use of saline water, or irrigating with too little water during the dry season. Sticks that are to be used, again should be washed with a disinfectant be-. Fallow ploughing the land after harvesting the previous crop im-, proves the soil structure and water-holding capacity, reduce soil-borne pests and diseases by exposing the soil to the hot, sun. It is possible to sow in-, doors earlier (in pots or trays). and this may lead to a much more serious resurgence of the pest. a strong taste of cooked tomato. whether beginners or more experienced farmers, extension workers, In this revised edition, the sections on pepper and paprika growing in, previous editions have been omitted to make room for information on. Closed. The average incubation period, hatching per cent (%), first, second, third & fourth instar (pupal) and total nymphal period of B. tabaci were 7.04 ± 0.52, 65.11 ± 7.31, 3.99 ± 0.20, 2.78 ± 0.23, 2.81 ± 0.26 & 3.64 ± 0.41 and 13.22 ± 1.10 days, respectively. Leafhoppers are between 2 and 30 mm long, and walk sideways if, they are disturbed. quire less labour, so they are popular for commercial cultivation. This, will kill most (invisible) micro-organisms remaining on the skin and. It includes all, aspects of moving products from producers to the final consumer, Selling tomatoes involves transactions in which tomatoes are ex-. ers. other insects, and also against mosaic-virus and fungi. Description . The layout of integrated tomato processing and the hardware layout of lines of tomato processind hae been described.The new effective method of tomato-juice production is developed. Tomato Cultivation; Farming Techniques – A Complete Guide. For tomato products the most important are: tents of a large jar than those of a small bottle. For example, in T, pays back the loan he obtained from a friend, $18, he reduces his cash, assets by $18, but he also reduces his liabilities by $18. it ripen indoors in a dry spot (e.g. the highest level of Na+/K+ with 8.13. Compare the two to see if you have. limited and caring for the plants (husbandry) is difficult. The promising growth performance and high yield of tomato depends on the selection of appropriate varieties for a particular location. H�b``������$����WR����~�������|@���T��#���2S/`M. orange to red. T. is most common via infected plant material (especially the fruit). The first step therefore is to prepare, tomato pulp. For example, if a, small-scale farmer wants to sell to a processor, it is important to find a, processor in a good location. Training Title: Tomato Production Objective: To provide a guideline on production of Tomato Specific Objective: • To provide basic information on production, post-harvest handling, and marketing of Tomato Contents: 1. available and depend only the finance possible. Record-, keeping takes a lot of time and requires discipline, but gives the. Figure 6: Bush type tomato intercropped with sugarcane. the start, and then wait quite some time to able to sell the tomato crop. It, Light red ripeness stage: 60% to 90% of skin colour is not green. Cropping systems like rice-tomato, rice-maize, okra-potato-, tomato, maize-tomato-water melon and rice-peas-tomato have been, proved economical systems. When first fruits begin to form, the. If they are allowed to grow they will produce masses of, allowed to grow should also be removed. Pruning the side-shoots is called nipping. Adventitious, roots may develop on the stems. Among all treatments staking and pruning was responsible for maximum average height (46 cm), number of branches per plant (7.67), number of leaves per branch (21), number of flowers per plant (18), number of fruits per plant (8.33) and fruit brix (11.3%). Spacing between plants, system and also whether the plants are to be supported by stakes or, left on the ground. DOWNLOAD PDF . of each genotype were divided into three groups and replicated three times sodium chloride was This guide is directed at the small to medium-sized grower with one to several houses, but much of the information is also useful for larger operations. Screens. Leaves are more or less hairy, strongly odorous, pinnately compound, and up to 45 cm (18 inches) long. The statistical analysis of data showed the significant effect of treatments on tomato plants. (*���(%�8H����8c�-�� f�ԉd�9�@6_IjH��9���(3=�D����R�1%? In record-keeping, what is owned by the farmer (the farmer’s posses-, sions) are called assets, e.g. They are referred to as either soil or soilless culture. PVMV causes mosaic spots in tomato. plants that show no signs of the disease. Fruit number played greater role than fruit weight in improving marketable yield of tomato hybrids. Website: www.prota.org This is, A typical marketing research process is as follo, Step 1: Recognise that you need information, Step 2: Define clearly the objectives of your research, Step 3: Find out what methods can be used to gather the information, Step 4: Understand the best methods for gathering information, Step 8: Make decisions based on new knowledge, for items such as farm tools, fertilisers, seeds, etc. In many cases, viral disease, leads to dwarfed growth, rosette formation or other strange stem and, leaf deformations. The yields are also higher. The vascular system in the stem of infected plants, appears light brown in transverse or longitudinal section; it becomes a, darker brown at a late stage of infection. But farmers themselves can prepare a rough formulation. There are several types of constructions and accompanying covering, The simplest form of cover is to lay sheets of plastic film on the, ground or over a simple support system. During one season. Resistance to a specific disease means that it is very difficult or, impossible for a plant with this resistant characteristic to get that par-, ticular disease. They are not as effective and fast acting as synthetic chemicals, for suppressing pests do little harm to natural predators and are safer, for the environment and for consumers. Boiling it down, to half its volume will therefore yield a purée with 10-12 percent sol-, ids. In figures 6, It is important to understand that the farmer’s time has to be calculated. Some of the most common packaging materials: It may be possible to form formal or informal associations with other. Tomato Cultivation Guide 2018 agricultureguruji.com/tomato-cultivation The plant may, wilt on only one side or on a leaf, while the other half or rest of the, plant remains healthy for a long time. This virus is transmitted in a non-persistent manner, The main disease control measures are proper cultural practices, in-, cluding intercropping with maize or using reflective mulches to reduce. Thin out, plant gets better support and this prevents stem from breaking, there is better ventilation, so less chance of spreading diseases, es-, preventing contact between fruits and soil means fruits will not rot, it is possible to plant more plants per hectare, Remove the previous crop residues and use sanitation practices to, Deep cultivation and exposing soil to sunlight before transplanting, It is important to keep the field weed free for 4-5 weeks after trans-, On large acreages, mechanical cultivation is a common method of, The first cultivation may be done fairly close to newly established, Hand weeding is an effective method to control weeds growing be-, Mulching with plant residues is good for weed suppression, soil, Intercropping of tomato with cabbage. labour: for harvesting, handling, washing. pocket. Crop rotation with cereals and other leguminous, crops improves the soil health and reduce the pest infestation. The water from the roof can be collected in a, basin for irrigation. One side shows the assets and the other side shows the li-. Your Name. Lower leaves that show any, sign of yellowing should also be removed to avoid the risk of infec-, When the plant has developed 6-7 branches with tomatoes, stop the, plant from growing further by breaking off the growing tip. The fruits are commonly eaten raw, served as a cooked vegetable, used as an ingredient of prepared dishes, pickled, or processed. In the soil, they can penetrate the plant through root lesions, caused for example, by nematodes.